40 million people in the
United States have some type of arthritis. This represents 15% of
the population or one in every seven persons.
The prevalence of arthritis is
projected to increase 57% to about 59.6 million people with
arthritis by the year 2020. This represents 18.2 % of the
Arthritis is a leading cause
of work-related disability among people. An estimated 2.8% of the
population or 7 million people had arthritis as a major or
contributing cause of activity limitation. The prevalence of
arthritis related disability is also expected to rise by the year
2020, when an estimated 11.6 million people will be affected.
There are more than 100 types
of arthritic diseases. Arthritis was reported as the cause of
disability more than any other chronic diseases, such as back
pain, heart or lung conditions, diabetes, or cancer.
Arthritis by age and sex:
Arthritis affects all ages
including a significant number of adults in the prime of their
life (almost 9 million adults) . An estimated 285,000 children are
affected with arthritis. There is a higher prevalence in people
greater than 65, and in women. Arthritis affects one of every two
people over age 65. Arthritis is the most prevalent chronic
condition in women affecting 26.4 million. By the year 2020, an
estimated 36 million women will be affected.
Cost of Arthritis:
The estimated cost of
arthritis is about $64.8 billion dollars. Twenty- four percent was
due to direct medical costs, and 76% was due to indirect costs
from lost wages. The cost including arthritis and other
musculoskeletal conditions was 149.4 billion, which is about 2.5%
of the Gross National Product.
This is also known as
degenerative joint disease, and is the most common type of
arthritis, affecting an estimated 20.7 million adults in the
United States, mostly after age 45. It primarily affects the joint
cartilage. It usually affects the weight-bearing joints, such as
This is a systemic
inflammatory disease affecting the synovium or lining of the
joints. It typically affects more than one joint and tends to be
symmetrical. It affects 2.1 million people in the United States,
or about 1 percent of the population. Onset is usually after age
45, but often occurs in the 20s and 30s . The cause is unknown,
but it is an autoimmune disease.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
JRA is the most common form of
arthritis in childhood. It affects 70,000 to 100,000 children in
the United States. The cause is unknown, but it involves
abnormalities of the immune system. JRA can cause altered growth,
joint damage, and joint inflammation.
This is a seronegative
spondyloarthritis that primarily affects the spine and causes
stiffness. A characteristic lesion is the formation of calcaneal
spurs. Heel pain is a common complaint. It usually affects men
between the ages of 16 and 35.
This results from a build-up
of uric acid which forms sodium urate crystals that deposit in
joints and cause inflammation. Gout commonly affects the first
metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot. It usually affects men over
age 40. Women with gout usually develop it after menopause.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
This is also known as lupus or
SLE. It is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system harms
the body’s own healthy cells and tissues. Nine out of ten people
who have lupus are women. Lupus is three times more common in
black women than in caucasian women.
This is a seronegative
spondyloarthritis which occurs in some people with psoriasis.
About 95% have swelling in joints outside the spine. Swelling in
the toes gives them a sausage appearance. Pitting of the toenails
and other nail changes affect 80% of people with psoriatic
arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis affects men and women of all races
and usually occurs between the ages of 20 and 50.
Prevention and Treatment of Arthritis
Foot Problems According to the
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin
Diseases and the Arthritis Foundation early diagnosis and
treatment of arthritis can prevent much unnecessary disability.
People with arthritis need to self-manage their condition and
engage in physical activity.